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Usda Cold Summer Download Zip



Big mistakes are made by gardeners from desert or coastal areas and not realizing how cold affects plants. Cactus brought up to the mountains from desert nurseries thrive in the summer heat but quickly turn to black mush as freezing weather hits them, never to live again.




usda cold summer download zip



Biggest Mistakes are made by gardeners coming from desert or coastal gardening and not realizing how cold affects plants. Cactus brought up to the mountains from desert nurseries will thrive in the summer heat, but quickly turn to black frost damages mush as the freezing weather of winter arrive, never to live again.


USDA Hardiness Zone 6 covers a large portion of the United States. Known as a generally mild climate, the average minimum winter temperature is between -10 to 0 degrees F. With cold winter and mild-to-hot summers, you have many growing options in Zone 6.


Because Zone 6 features distinct seasons of spring, summer and fall, flowers are available and will bloom for several months. In addition to cold hardy flowers such as pansies and snapdragons, extend your growing season by planting:


Frost and early spring cold snaps can damage young vegetables. Providing row covers or cold frames can help protect against early spring or late fall damage. The long, hot summers, combined with the milder winters provide ideal growing temperatures for almost all vegetables. Although artichoke can be grown as an annual starting in Zone 4, in Zone 7 this decorative and edible plant becomes a perennial favorite. Add to your planting list:


Many gardeners in Zone 8 grow vegetables three times a year, especially with the aid of cold frames and row covers. Cool weather plants like spinach, lettuce and peas can be grown in both the spring and the fall. Even your summer vegetable harvest can be extended by planting every two weeks. Vegetables that thrive in the summer heat of Zone 8 include:


Long, hot summers and mild winter conditions make the heat more of an issue than the cold in this zone. Tropical plants with low water requirements thrive in Zone 9. Because of the extreme heat, spring gardening begins much earlier and fall gardens produce much longer than in other zones.


Cool season crops, including lettuces, radishes and peas, can be grown in Zone 10 during the winter with little fear of cold damage. Summer vegetables must be able to handle the long, hot days of summer. Consider including these vegetables in your Zone 10 garden:


Tropical plants are the highlight of Zone 11. With long, hot summers and warm winters, Zone 11 growers need to look for plants that are heat tolerant. Traditionally cold season plants, such as pansies and spinach, will have a limited growing season in the even the coolest part of winter here (which is rarely cold at all). Plants native to the area have the best chance of surviving the heat of summer.


Durable, traffic-tolerant ryegrass naturally resists insects and disease, and offers moderate drought tolerance suited to northern summers. Collaborative testing between the Cooperative Turfgrass Breeders Test and the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program pursues increasingly cold-tolerant varieties. Pennington Smart Seed Perennial Ryegrass Blend offers premium ryegrass varieties selected for optimal balance in Midwest lawns.


Assessment-standard projection:Projection: Albers Equal AreaUnits:MetersSpheroid: GRS80Datum:NAD83First Standard Parallel:27 degrees 30 minutesSecond Standard Parallel:37 degrees 30 minutesCentral Meridian:-90 degrees 00 minutesLatitude of Origin:25 degrees 00 minutesFalse Easting:0.0False Northing:0.0Completeness_Report: All polygons have been reviewed for attribution accuracy. A quality control inspection has been performed to eliminate any missing or duplicate labels in the shapefile.Positional_Accuracy: Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy: Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: All linear delineations are within National Map Accuracy Standards.Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment: Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value: +/- 177.8 metersVertical_Positional_Accuracy: Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: All linear delineations are within National Map Accuracy Standards.Quantitative_Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment: Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Value: +/- 75 metersLineage: Source_Information: Source_Citation: Citation_Information: Originator: Mr. Robert BaileyPublication_Date: 1995Title: Ecoregions of the United StatesGeospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: mapPublication_Information: Publication_Place: Geometronics- Southern RegionPublisher: USDA Forest ServiceOther_Citation_Details: The Ecoregion shape file is delineated at the province level.Online_Linkage: Source_Scale_Denominator: 1:3,500,000Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROMSource_Time_Period_of_Content: Time_Period_Information: Single_Date/Time: Calendar_Date: 1994Source_Currentness_Reference: publication dateSource_Citation_Abbreviation: Ecological Units of the United States based on Bailey's Ecoregions of the United States.Process_Step: Process_Description: Nov. 2000: The shapefile was loaded from the 'Ecological Units of the Eastern United States. First Approximation.' CD ROM. The data set was then modified by USDA Forest Service personnel. The shapefiles were reprojected to match Assessment standard Albers and subsetted to the thirteen Southern states of the Assessment using Arc View's Theme Query tool.Process_Date: 15-Nov-2000Process_Contact: Contact_Information: Contact_Organization_Primary: Contact_Organization: USDA-Forest ServiceContact_Person: Mr. John PyeContact_Position: EcologistContact_Address: Address_Type: mailing and physical addressAddress: USDA Forest Service, SRS4851Address: 3041 E. Cornwallis Rd.City: Research Triangle ParkState_or_Province: NCPostal_Code: 27709Country: USAContact_Voice_Telephone: (919).549.4013Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jpye@fs.fed.usProcess_Step: Process_Description: Metadata imported.Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: L:\forest\sfra\download_data\fia_county\albers\cnty2m\fcounty2m.xmlSpatial_Data_Organization_Information: Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: VectorPoint_and_Vector_Object_Information: SDTS_Terms_Description: SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: G-polygonPoint_and_Vector_Object_Count: 12009Spatial_Reference_Information: Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition: Planar: Map_Projection: Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal AreaAlbers_Conical_Equal_Area: Standard_Parallel: 27.500000Standard_Parallel: 37.500000Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -90.000000Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 25.000000False_Easting: 0.000000False_Northing: 0.000000Planar_Coordinate_Information: Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: coordinate pairCoordinate_Representation: Abscissa_Resolution: 0.004096Ordinate_Resolution: 0.004096Planar_Distance_Units: metersGeodetic_Model: Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222Entity_and_Attribute_Information: Detailed_Description: Entity_Type: Entity_Type_Label: ecoregionsAttribute: Attribute_Label: FIDAttribute_Definition: Internal feature number.Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRIAttribute_Domain_Values: Unrepresentable_Domain: Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.Attribute: Attribute_Label: ShapeAttribute_Definition: Feature geometry.Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRIAttribute_Domain_Values: Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.Attribute: Attribute_Label: AREAAttribute_Definition: The size of the shape in shapefile units.Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRIAttribute: Attribute_Label: PERIMETERAttribute_Definition: The perimeter of the shape in shapefile units.Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRIAttribute: Attribute_Label: UNITS_ALB1Attribute: Attribute_Label: UNITS_ALB2Attribute: Attribute_Label: MUIDAttribute_Definition: Symbol for polygons representing subsection map unit; Example 221HbAttribute: Attribute_Label: MAPCODEAttribute_Definition: Ecosystem province attributes based on Bailey's 1995 "Ecoregions of the United States" (Please see overview below for valid codes and definitions).Attribute_Definition_Source: Definitions were downloaded from Overview_Description: Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Valid MAPCODE Attributes:1) 2212) 2223) 2314) 2325) 2346) 2517) 2558) 4119) M22110) M22211) M23112) WEntity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: 221_Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province-Appalachian Plateaus, New England lowlands, mid-Atlantic coastal plain, Piedmont Plateau, 104,500 mi2 (270,700 km2) Land-surface form.--This province includes topography of diverse nature and origin. The northern part has been glaciated. West of the Appalachian Mountains are the Appalachian Plateaus. The sedimentary formations there are nearly horizontal, a typical plateau structure, but they are so elevated and dissected that the landforms are mostly hilly and mountainous. Altitudes range from about 1,000 ft (300 m) along their western edge to somewhat more that 3,000 ft (900 m) on the eastern edge. East of the mountains is the Piedmont Plateau and coastal plain, where altitudes range from sea level to about 1,000 ft (300 m).Climate.--The continental climatic regime here ensures a strong annual temperature cycle, with cold winters and warm summers. Average annual temperatures range from 40 to 60F (4 to 15C). There is year-round precipitation, averaging from 35 to 60 in (890 to 1,530 mm) per year. Precipitation is markedly greater in the summer months, when evapotranspiration is great and moisture demands are high. Only a small water deficit is incurred in summer, whereas a large surplus normally develops in spring.Vegetation.--This province is characterized by a winter deciduous forest (sometimes called temperate deciduous forest) dominated by tall broadleaf trees that provide a dense, continuous canopy in summer and shed their leaves completely in winter. Lower layers of small trees and shrubs develop weakly. In spring, a luxuriant ground cover of herbs quickly develops, but is greatly reduced after trees reach full foliage and shade the ground. Forest vegetation is divided into three major associations: mixed mesophytic, Appalachian oak, and pine-oak.Mixed mesophytic vegetation, the deciduous forest with the greatest diversity, occupies moist, well-drained sites in the Appalachian Plateaus. Widespread dominants include American beech, tuliptree (also called yellow-poplar), several basswoods, sugar maple, sweet buckeye, red oak, white oak, and eastern hemlock, in addition to 20-25 other species. The best indicators of this association are buckeye and basswood. The Appalachian oak association occurs east of the mountains. The dominant species are white oak and northern red oak. Chestnut formerly was abundant, but a blight has destroyed most of this species.Pine-oak forest--sometimes called "Pine Barrens"--occupies dry sandy soils that are frequently exposed to naturally occurring fires along the northern Coastal Plain. There is a thick shrub layer beneath the pines. Atlantic white-cedar swamps occur on mesic sites.Soils.--The pedogenic process associated with deciduous forest is podzolization, moderated by warm wet winters. As a result, soils are characteristically Alfisols. Toward lower latitudes, the tendency to laterization becomes stronger and Ultisols are encountered. Inceptisols are found on the plateaus. In the deciduous forests, a thick layer of leaves covers the ground and humus is abundant. Fauna.--Important mammals include the whitetail deer, black bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, eastern chipmunk, white-footed mouse, pine vole, shorttail shrew, and cotton mouse.Bird populations are large. The turkey, ruffed grouse, bobwhite, and mourning dove are game birds in various parts of the province. The most abundant breeding birds include the cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood thrush, summer tanager, red-eyed vireo, blue-gray gnatcatcher, and Carolina wren.Characteristic reptiles include the box turtle, common garter snake, and timber rattlesnake.Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: 222_Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province-East-Central Drift and Lake-Bed Flats, Ozark Highlands, eastern interior uplands and basins, 270,000 mi2 (699,300 km2) Land-surface form.--Most of the area is rolling, but some parts are nearly flat and in the Ozark Highlands the relief is moderate (up to 1,000 ft [300 m]). Low rolling hills, dissected plateaus, and basins are found in Tennessee and Kentucky. The northern parts of the province have been glaciated, but not the southern. Elevations range from 80 to 1,650 ft (24 to 500 m).Climate.--The climate has many characteristics in common with the oceanic broadleaf forest to the east, but precipitation decreases in quantity and effectiveness as one moves inland. Average annual temperatures range from 40F (4C) in the north to 65F (18C) in the south. Summers are hot, with frequent tornadoes. Precipitation varies from 20 in (510 mm) near the 95th meridian to 40 in (1,020 mm) in Ohio, and to 50 in (1,280 mm) in Tennessee. Most precipitation takes place during the growing season.Vegetation.--Like its counterpart to the east, this province is dominated by broadleaf deciduous forest, but the smaller amounts of precipitation found here favor the drought-resistant oak-hickory association. Although other forests have oak and hickory, only this particular forest association has both species in abundance.The oak-hickory forest is medium-tall to tall, becoming savannalike in its northern reaches from eastern Oklahoma to Minnesota, where it gradually turns into prairie. From eastern Kansas to Indiana, it forms a mosaic pattern with prairie. Widespread dominants are white oak, red oak, black oak, bitternut hickory, and shagbark hickory. The understory is usually well developed, often with flowering dogwood. Other understory species include sassafras and hophornbeam. The shrub layer is distinct, with some evergreens. Many wildflower species occur. Wetter sites typically feature an abundance of American elm, tuliptree, and sweet gum.Northern reaches of the oak-hickory forest contain increasing numbers of maple, beech, and basswood. The maple-basswood forest, dominated by sugar maple and American basswood, occurs from central Minnesota south through Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa. Glaciated areas of Ohio and Indiana feature a beech-maple forest defined by American beech and sugar maple. In these latter associations, oak and hickory occur on poor sites.Soils.--As in the oceanic broadleaf forest, the soils change from Alfisols in the north to Ultisols in southerly latitudes. Toward the continental interior, calcification sets in as forest soils give way to the darker soils of the grasslands (Mollisols). Fauna.--In the oak-hickory forest, acorns and hickory nuts provide abundant food for the ubiquitous gray squirrel. Fox squirrels are often found, as are eastern chipmunks.Roving flocks of blue jays also feed on forest nuts. In summer, scarlet and/or summer tanagers, rose-breasted grosbeaks, and ovenbirds are common. The wild turkey is also found here. The cerulean warbler is common in the beech-maple forest, and occurs elsewhere as well.Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: 231_Southern Mixed Forest Province-Southeastern United States, 193,000 mi2 (499,900 km2) Land-surface form.--This province comprises the Piedmont and the irregular Gulf Coastal Plains, where 50 to 80 percent of the area slopes gently toward the sea. Local relief is 100 to 600 ft (30 to 180 m) on the Gulf Coastal Plains, and 300 to 1,000 ft (90 to 300 m) on the Piedmont. The flat coastal plains have gentle slopes and local relief of less than 100 ft (30 m). Most of the numerous streams in the region are sluggish; marshes, lakes, and swamps are numerous.Climate.--The climate is roughly uniform throughout the region. Mild winters and hot, humid summers are the rule; the average annual temperature is 60 to 70F (15 to 21C). The growing season is long (200 to 300 days), but frost occurs nearly every winter. Precipitation, which averages from 40 to 60 in (1,020 to 1,530 mm) annually, is rather evenly distributed throughout the year, but peaks slightly in midsummer or early spring, when it falls mostly during thunderstorms. Precipitation exceeds evaporation, but summer droughts occur. Snow falls rarely and melts almost immediately. Vegetation.--Climax vegetation is provided by medium-tall to tall forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees. At least 50 percent of the stands are made up of loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, and other southern yellow pine species, singly or in combination. Common associates include oak, hickory, sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, and winged elm. The main grasses are bluestem, panicums, and longleaf uniola. Dogwood, viburnum, haw, blueberry, American beautyberry, youpon, and numerous woody vines are common. The West Gulf Coast is bordered along its shores by salt marshes characterized by the marsh grass Spartina.Soils.--Ultisols dominate throughout the region, with locally conspicuous Vertisols formed from marls or soft limestones. The Vertisols are clayey soils that form wide, deep cracks when dry. Inceptisols on floodplains of the major streams are among the better soils for crops.Fauna.--Fauna vary with the age and stocking of timber stands, percent of deciduous trees, proximity to openings, and presence of bottom-land forest types. Whitetail deer and cottontail rabbits are widespread. When deciduous trees are present on uplands, the fox squirrel is common. Gray squirrels live along intersecting drainages. Raccoon and fox inhabit the whole region and are hunted in many areas. Among mammals frequently encountered in the western part of this province is the nine-banded armadillo.The eastern wild turkey, bobwhite, and mourning dove are widespread. Of the 20-odd bird species present in mature forest, the most common are the pine warbler, cardinal, summer tanager, Carolina wren, ruby-throated hummingbird, blue jay, hooded warbler, eastern towhee, and tufted titmouse. The red-cockaded woodpecker is an endangered species.Forest snakes include cottonmouth moccasin, copperhead, rough green snake, rat snake, coachwhip, and speckled kingsnake. Fench and glass lizards are also found, as is the slimy salamander.Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: 232_Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, Florida, 173,800 mi2 (450,100 km2) Land-surface form.--This province comprises the flat and irregular Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains down to the sea. Well over 50 percent of the area is gently sloping. Local relief is less than 300 ft (90 m), although some areas are gently rolling. Most of the region's numerous streams are sluggish; marshes, swamps, and lakes are numerous. Climate.--The climate regime is equable, with a small to moderate annual temperature range. Average annual temperature is 60 to 70F (16 to 21C). Rainfall is abundant and well distributed throughout the year; precipitation ranges from 40 to 60 in (1,020 to 1,530 mm) per year.Vegetation.--Temperate rainforest, also called temperate evergreen forest or laurel forest, is typical in this province. Temperate rainforest has fewer species of trees than its equatorial or tropical counterparts, and hence larger populations of individual species. Trees are not as tall here as in low-latitude rainforests; leaves are usually smaller and more leathery, and the leaf canopy less dense. Common species include evergreen oaks and members of the laurel and magnolia families. There is usually a well-developed lower stratum of vegetation that may variously include tree ferns, small palms, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Lianas and epiphytes are abundant. At higher elevations, where fog and clouds persist, the tr


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